Articles | Volume 78, issue 1
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20 Jan 2023
Standard article |  | 20 Jan 2023

The State as a “form of life” and the space as Leistungsraum: the reception of Ratzel in the First and Second World Wars

Patricia Chiantera-Stutte

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Cited articles

Abrahamsson, C.: On the genealogy of Lebensraum, Geogr. Helv., 68, 37–44,, 2013. 
Barnes, T. J. and Minca, C.: Nazi spatial theory: the dark geographies of Carl Schmitt and Walter Christaller, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., 103, 669–687, 2012. 
Bassin, M.: Imperialism and the nation state in Friedrich Ratzel's political geography, Prog. Hum. Geogr., 11, 473–495, 1987. 
Bendersky, J. W.: Carl Schmitt: Theorist for the Reich, University Press, Princeton, ISBN 10:0691613753, 1983.  
Blindow, F.: Carl Schmitts Reichsordnung. Strategie für einen europäischen Großraum, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 13:9783050034058, 1999. 
Short summary
The relevance of the outbreak of the First and Second World Wars to the posthumous reception of Ratzel's work cannot be overestimated; Kjellen in particular was one of the main protagonists of Ratzel's revival. Kjellen and Schmitt appropriated and transformed Ratzel's concepts for their research aims, in order to highlight a new turning point in the political and juridical sciences and in politics. As a consequence, their Ratzel was oriented toward militant aims.