Articles | Volume 78, issue 3
Standard article
03 Aug 2023
Standard article |  | 03 Aug 2023

Intentionality and visibility in state- and society-led climate approaches: towards a more comprehensive understanding of local adaptation initiatives

Peter Eckersley, Wolfgang Haupt, Viviana Wiegleb, Jens Niewind, and Antje Otto

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Cited articles

Araos, M., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J. D., Austin, S. E., Biesbroek, R., and Lesnikowski, A.: Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: A systematic global assessment, Environ. Sci. Policy, 66, 375–382,, 2016. 
Bajec, N. L. and Maruna, M.: Planned and autonomous actions: Belgrade waterfront adaptation to climate change, Environ. Eng. Manage. J., 14, 1–10,, 2013. 
Bawakyillenuo, S., Yaro, J. A., and Teye, J.: Exploring the autonomous adaptation strategies to climate change and climate variability in selected villages in the rural northern savannah zone of Ghana, Local Environ., 21, 361–382,, 2016. 
Buschmann, D., Koziol, K., Bausch, T., and Reinhard, S.: Adaptation to climate change in small German municipalities: Sparse knowledge and weak adaptive capacities, Nat. Resour. Forum, 46, 377–392,, 2022. 
Short summary
Research into climate adaptation may neglect activities that are (1) not undertaken by government bodies, (2) not designed specifically to reduce the potential impact of climate threats and/or (3) not labelled explicitly as adaptation. We present a framework to examine these under-explored initiatives and draw on two studies of municipalities and small businesses in Germany to highlight various activities that contribute to climate resilience but are largely unintentional and/or hidden.