Articles | Volume 78, issue 2
Standard article
17 May 2023
Standard article |  | 17 May 2023

Framing REDD+: political ecology, actor–network theory (ANT), and the making of forest carbon markets

Juliane Miriam Schumacher

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Cited articles

Agarwal, A. and Narain, S.: Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1991. 
Agrawal, A., Nelson, F., Adams, W. M., and Sandbrook, C.: Governance and REDD: a reply to Wunder, Oryx, 44, 337–338, 2010. 
Anderson, B., Kearnes, M., McFarlane, C., and Swanton, D.: On assemblages and geography, Dialog. Hum. Geogr., 2, 171–189,, 2012. 
Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Duchelle, A. E., Larson, A., Martius, C., Sunderlin, W. D., Verchot, L., Wong, G., and Wunder, S.: Learning from REDD+: A response to Fletcher et al, Conserv. Biol., 31, 718–720, 2017. 
Asiyanbi, A.: A political ecology of REDD+: Property rights, militarised protectionism, and carbonised exclusion in Cross River, Geoforum, 77, 146–156,, 2016. 
Short summary
New theoretical approaches like actor–network theory have become influential in human geography, questioning previous approaches to addressing human–environment relations. In this paper, I use the example of a controversial, forest-based climate protection scheme, REDD+, to show how these approaches are changing research foci and practices – from an analysis of the neoliberalization of nature to the making of markets and from the effects on human users to those on non-humans.